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【原创】Module 1 Unit 1 School Life Grammar and Usage: The Attributive Clause  

2011-09-20 16:13:21|  分类: 课件教案 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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Grammar and Usage

The Attributive Clause

The General idea of this period:

This period will deal with the grammar part: the Attributive Clause. You will have systematic explanations of the Attributive Clause as well as some exercises to consolidate what you learn.

Teaching Aim:

Introduce attributive clause

Teaching important point:

The basic usage of the relative pronouns and learn to use them in different situations.

Teaching difficult point:

How to help the students to learn the grammar efficiently.

Teaching method:

Deduction to present the usage of the relative pronouns and then some exercises to consolidate what we have learned.

Teaching procedures:

Step I Greetings & Duty Report 

Step II Presentation

1. Look at the picture at page8 and ask the students to speak out what they may think of.(Write down these three structures on the Bb or show them on the screen below the picture.)

Adjective: a green team

Prepositional phrase: a team in green

Attributive clause: a team who were wearing green

     Attributive clause modifies a noun in the same way as adjective or prepositional phrase does. The noun it modifies is called an antecedent.

2. Read Part2 at page8. Attributive clauses are usually introduced by relative pronouns like which, that, who, whom, and whose, or relative adverbs like where, why and when. In the clause these relative words usually function as the following: (page8) 

Main Structure and Usage:

             Antecdent + Relative Word + Clause

关系代词一般用法一览表:

先行词/关系代词

    

主语

宾语

介词+宾语

定语

     

Who,

That

Whom

That

whom

Whose

     

Which

that

Which

that

Whose

Whose

 

不能省略

常可省略

介词的选择根据习惯搭配以及作用与

含义,短语动词中的介词不能拆开

 

关系副词一般用法一览表:

关系副词

作用

用法

说明

When

状语

跟在表时间的先行词后

相当于表时间的介词

+which的作用

Where

状语

跟在表地点的先行词后

相当于表地点的介词

+which的作用

why

状语

跟在表原因的先行词后

(以reason为常见)

相当于表原因的介词

+which的作用

 ◆确定关系词的步骤

1)先找关系词,看先行词指的是什么。

2)看关系词在从句中所充当的成分。

 ◆在定语从句中,当先行词指物时,下列情况的关系词宜用that而不用which

1)先行词被形容词最高级 序数词 数词几种词修饰或被 onlyanyfewlittlenoallone of等修饰时。

2)先行词为allmuchlittlenonefewonesomethinganything等不定代词时。

3)先行词中既有人又有物时。

He was looking pleasantly at te children and parcels that filled his bus.

4)先行词在主句中作表语关系词在从句中作表语时。

The village is no longer the one that was 5 years ago.

5)当主句中含有疑问词which时。

Which are the books that you bought for me ?

宜用which而不用that的情况

1)在非限制性定语从句中

2)在关系词前有介词时

3)当先行词本身是that

4)当关系词离先行词较远时

关系词whothat指人时,也有不同情况分别用不同的关系词

1)当主句是there be句型时,关系词用who

2)先行词是为anyonethosesomeoneeveryoneone等词时,关系词用who

3)当主句是who作疑问词时,关系词用that

Who is that girl that is standing by the window?

4whom在从句中只作宾语,可被who取代。

whose作关系词既指人又指物,在从句中作定语。如:

Do you know Mr.Smith whose story is very moving ?

There is a room, whose window faces the river.

There is a room, the window of which faces the river.

关系代词as,在从句中作主语、宾语和表语。

1)先行词被suchthe same修饰,或句型as manymuch)中,从句都用as 引导。

Such books as you bought are useful.

The school is just the same as it was 10 years age.

注意:区别①such … that … 引导的结果状语从句。They are such

lovely children that we love them much.②the same … that … 引导定语从句。I want to use the same tool that you used just now.

2)无先行词的定语从句用aswhich引导。

区别:意义上:as 含有这点正如……一样位置上:as 从句可置句首,也可在另处。

He didn’t pass the exam, as we had expected.

There is lots of air in loose snow, which can keep the cold out.

As is known, the earth is round, not flat.

关系副词whenwherewhythat

when 指时间 = in / at / on / during which

where指地点 = in / at / from / which

why指原因 = for which

当先行词为waydayreasontime时,可用that作关系副词。(非正式场合)

I don’t like the way that / in which / he talks.

time作先行词时,关系词可以省掉。

This is the first time I have given you a lesson in French.

必须注意的问题

1)关系词作主语时,从句中谓语的数。

2)注意区别定语从句与强调句。

         ①定语从句中关系词作从句成分,复合句。

         ②强调it无意义,that / who不是引导词。

         ③强调it is / wasthat / who后如果句子意思讲得通则是强调句,讲不通则不是。

             It is the museum that / which we visited last year.(定语从句)

             It was in the hotel that we stayed last night.(强调句)

3)定语从句与同位语从句的区别。

        ①定语从句引导词被称为关系词,that充当主语、宾语、表语。有时可省略。

        ②同位语从句引导词被叫做连词,that不能充当任何成分,不可省。

           Word came that their army was defeated.(同位语)

           We expressed to them our wish that was the same as their.(定语)

4)关系词在从句中省略的情况。

        ①关系词作宾语,前无介词时。

        ②关系词作表语。

5)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的翻译。

6)关系词前有介词或复杂介词,关系词只能是whichwhom

7)几个特殊的定语从句句型:

        ①He is the only one of the students who has got very good marks in the match.(句中one为先行词)

           He is one of the students who have got good marks in the match.(句中students为先行词)

        ②Is this place the one (that) we visited yesterday?

           Is this the place(that / which)we visited yesterday ?

        ③He stood at the window, from where he could see what was happening.

        ④It may rain, in which case the match will be put off.

 

Step III Read the article at page9 and underline the attributive clauses you find in the article.

      Relative pronouns: that, which, who, whom and whose. Read this part at page10 and grasp the usages of these relative pronouns.(show the screen) Then do the exercise at page11.

Step IV Consolidation

Finish the exercises at page88

Step V Homework

Complete the Attributive Clause exercises.

 

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